񡴴 ݬ߻ӿѡ ެ-ế N91

ߡ ߫Ѽѡ 󿽿ᵿ

" (XXX-IV .)"

ٻ

ѡ 10- ""

ѽٮ ..

ѻѽ

ѡ ..

߬ 1994.

ѡ.

滿߫ ߻Ѽ

.

0: ..."ԫӿ ӫ", . "Ҭ",1988 ., .1 "󡴴 ӫ";

1: ǡ , "߬ 󿽿ᵿ", . "߬" 1992 ., I-III

;

2: ..ߴ, "櫬", . "Ҭ",1984 .;

3: ..,..ի-, ӿ "忺 ѽ Ѯ" -

"Žԫ,ӿԫѽ", ." " 1993 .;

4: ӫ. ..ӫ߬, "ԫӿ ǡԿ ", . , 1947

.;

5: ߿ .., " .", ., 1972, .68;

6: .ҿ ӪѴ, "ѡ Ѯ "⿻ԫ ӡ", 1953

.

7: Žԫ, "ūԿ ", ߬ ӻ,

III, , 1863 ., .284 ;

8: Ӭ ., ءѽ . ߫. 2- ., .20, .193, 555, 643; .23 .92,

643.

ӿ ỿ᡿ ߡټ ԫ Ӽᵿ 󽴽 N.0.

桫߫ Ѽ . ӿ Ѻ ߡ߫ ӫѡ ӿ

߻᡿ ԫ .

 ѫ߻ӿ ᡡټ, ԫ ߫ ,

󿽿ᵿ ӫ὿ ߬

޿ Ѽѡ: ߡ II . ..

ԫӿ I . .. ūԫ ߯ ԫӿ Ѯ

ѵ Ѯ ӿԫ ѽ ޿ ݻտ: 1) ݻ ѡ߬,

ӿԫ-ѡ߬, ӵ 󿽿ᵿ 2) ݻ Կ ߡ

󿽿ᵿ.

߬Ѽ ҽ ݻտ.

I. XXX-XII .

Ἣԡ ᡡ ᡡ߬ ҽ Ӽӫ 3000-

1200 . ẽ ԫ ߬Ӵ ѡ. ӿ, ޿޿ߴ

ԡѡѺ ߬ ӫ Ҭѻ ѡ 󴺿 Ѭ

, ߼Ӵ ԫѡ.

櫺ѽ Ѵѽ Ѭ ݻտ ӫ ߡ Ԭ

ޫ ݬ߻ӿѡ ᡿. 䫽 Ѫ ԼԿ

ӫѡ Ѽ ա߬ ᡿, 󫽿޿ ѽѡ ؽ ޿ӫ

߻ѵ὿ӫᡡ Ѽ߽ѡ ӫ. ώ 󬽯Ὣ

ԫ ߫Ѽӡү ( 1083) . Ѯڿ ὿

ᬪ , 󿡵, ӫ ԫ, Ἣӫ ѽѺ ޽

ѽӡ ѽ. 櫺᡿ ߻ ᡿ ӫ, Ҫ XVII-

XVI . Ѭ ὿ ݽѬ իӫޫ ὿ ӿѼ ѡ ӫ

ѽ. ӫ Խ὿ , Ҫ ԫ .

Կ ѽ Խ὿ ᵿ Ӽ ߻ѡ.

⫡ӡ ѽ ᬪ ѽү 񡫼 ѡ ߽ټ

Ӽ߬ ӫἿ, ӫ޿ߴ ẽ Ҭ.

ӿѡѡ ӡ , ԡ XXIII ., ߻߫Ὣ

߫᡿ ᡿, ӿ ѡ ߿ ѽѬ

Դ ԡ. , ߡٮ ߻ Ҫ II . ߫ԫ

ߡ 󫺫. ӿ ѡ,

߻޿ߴ Ӵѡ, ӿѡ ᡬ ԫѡ ԫ.

ӿ Ԭ ӿѡ ԫӡ-ӽ ӿ߻߫ѡ.

Կѡ ѡӡ ߽ Ѵ ߡ ӿү ߫ᡡ XVI-XII .

ӫ ӡ. ߫ѡ ѽ ᡿

󽿬 ԫ ԫ, ӫѡ ӿ ߫Ҫѡ ᮡ ߿Ѽ

ߡѡ ѻԴ ѡ, ƿӿ 1250- .

ᬫѡ ա߬ ᡿ ӫ ޿ӫ

Ӵ ԡ ѽ߬ ի, ߻ѵ὿ӫᡡ

ޡ Ѽ߽ ٽ ߡ ѡ߿ ݬ߬ Կ .

߫ Կѡ ԽὫ . տѬӡ ἴԡ Ӭ

὿ ѡ ѡ ѽү ѡ

ᡡѬ߫ տ. Ҽѡ ӿ߬ ӵ XIX-XVI .

Ἷ. ᬫ ӡ, ԫ ڿ ӿ߬ ӵ ٽ

Ҽѡټ ԫѡѼ ᪿԫ Ѽѽ.

ꡫ ӫѡ տѬӡ ߽ 󽴯 ӵ ӿ

Ѯ. ߡ Ѫ ѡ ӫ - ӫ, ᬪ ԫӴ

񿵿ٮ Ӵ . ġ ߫ԫ Ѯ (ӫ񫼫),

(񫼫) ټ Ѯ .  ӫ

ٽ ڿѡ ڡټ ѡټ ѡἿ ߬ ԫڿ

Ѽ 5-8 . ѡ Խ տѬԫӫ, ߫޿

Ҽѡ ҽ ߬ ӫ, .

Ѯ߬ 񫻫 Կѡ ߬.

ẫѼ ߫ѡٮ ӫٮ ѽٮ Ѭ ޡ

ѡ ѡ һ ᡿. ӫ ӿѡ Ҭ,

Ѻ ἡ Ἣ, ӫ߻߿ ѡ ߽Ѯ޿ .

ӫԴѡ XX-XII . ӫ Ὣ ߬ ẫ ӫ߻߿.

II . .. 񿵿ٮ ѫӿ߬ ӡѡ ӿԴ ٽ

񫻫ѡ Կ ߻὿, Դ ᡡټ ߬ Ἷ

үѼ Ѭ. ѮѼ, XIX-XV ., Դ

ẫߵ Կ ὿Կ߬ Կ, ߻ӫ ѡ,

ԡ ߬ү ҡ. 䫽 ԼԿ, ԫ Ѭԫ ᮫

߽ Ӭ ѡ 񿵿, Ԭ ӿүڿ

ẫ ѡ.

* * * * * * *

ӫ ѡ ӫ߫ ӫ󿽫 ӿ 󡿼᡿

߬ ѽѬ ѴѽԿ. Դڿ ӿӫ 󽴯ߴ

ԡ ӫ߻߿ ǬӫԿ, ߻ѡ ߬

Ἷ. ߫ѡ ᪡ ѿ ѡ, ԫ ӿ

Խ ҽ ؽ XXX-XII . 񿵿 Ѽѡ Ѯ

ҽ. ߫ ӫ߿ 󫽴 񫪡

߽ ѡ ӫ󫺺ѡ ӫ ԫԿ ᡫ

߽Կ ӡѡԿ. ߽ ߬ III . ԡ

Ѽ ἴԡ, Ӵڿ Դ 񫪡 ѡԿ, ԫ XX-

XII . ѡ 񫪡 Խߴ ҼѡѼ Ӽ ߫

ӿӫ ᡿ ѬԿ Կ. ߫ѡ

ӿѽ 󡿼᡿ ߬ ѡѼ ѽѬ Ѽѡ

ế Ѽ ߫Ѯ. ӿ ԫ 񫪡

὿ ߬ ѽѬ, ߻ӫ ѡ

󫻿߿, ߬ҽ, ԫԿ Կ. ӿѽ, ԫ

Ӵ ἴԡ ߬ Կ ѡ ѽѬ.

ᡡ Ѭ, ӫ, ի 񿵿

ӡ , 󬽯 ߬Ậ, ߡ, ߡ.

ѡѡѼ ѡ ߽ Ὣ ӫ Կ ӫ񡫮 ݺ-

ݻ, ӫ߽ Ѵ ӫ Ѽѡ.

II . ݻ߬ 񿵿 Ѭ ߽, 󿽿

ӫ߿ -߬ѽ, . Ҫ XVII-XII .

ԡ ԫ ᡴ ߬᡿ ߫Ѽѡ ᪡Ѯ޿ ԫӿ߬

߫Կ. ԫ ѡ ѽὫ ݽ Ѯ

ԫӿ, Ҽ޿ ԡ Ӽ ߫᡿ ү

ѡӡү 񿵿 ӫԴѡ Կ ߴ ԫ, ٽ

ỿ IX-VIII .

XIV-XIII . ݻ߬ ߽ ߫ٮ ߬ ߫

󫿼 ߻ѵټ Ἷ Һ٬ ߻ѡ,

Կիӡټ Ẽӫ-Ѭӫ, ޿ӡټ ߫ ԫ ӡ

ݻԫ, ѡ ѽ Ӽҽ. ԡ ѼὫ

߻߫Ὣ ӫ ѬԿ󡫼 ӫѡ, ԫ ӫ

Ӫ Ѯ ἴԿ.

ӫ Կ߬ ᡡ Ѭ ѽү ݻ߬

ݼ "꽿" "Ѵ" - ڿߴ ἴԡ ӫ .

ݼ ԡߴߴ ԫӿ߬ ᡿ ի Ѯ߬ ߬

߽ 1240. .. ӫ߬ .

ԼԿ, ԫ ݼ ѽ ߫ ݻ

Կ߬ ѵ XVIII-XII . 񿡴 ߿

ѡ ẫ, ѡ 񫽯. ߫

ӡ ߬ Ѵ, ٮ ѽѬ

ӫ Ѯ , ߼Ӵ ѽѡ , ߴ

ѡټ ᡡѮ ѵ ӫү ҽ.

ū ѡ , ԡ 񿵿 Ѭ Ѽ

Ѽѡ ᡿ ᬪ ӫ ԫӿ߬, ѡὫ߬

߬ ᡿. ġ ٽ ޿ӫ ԡ ԡ 󻽫

VII-VI ., 󬽯 ߻ӫᡴߴ ԫ ѡ

.

ƣ

ſѡ ߬ ҽ XXII-XII . ᡿ѡү ӫ.

ӫ , ѽ ؽ Ѫ ὿ ѽ

ӿҡ ỿ߿, ԡ Ҫ ԫӫ III . ٮ

ԫ ԫ߬ ѽ Կ. ӿԴ Ѭԫ

ᬿ, Ѽ, ߫὿ 󽿴Ѽ ߬ ӫ߬

, 󫺡 IV . ūѻѡ Ӽ ᬫ һӫ὿,

ԫ ߽. ᬫ ߽ (Ѯ) ,

߽ߴ Ҫ 1700 ., ߴ , ԫӫ ߿

ߴ ᡡټ.

ū߽ 1500 . ؽ ٽ Ӽ ѡԿ -

߽ . ġ 󬽯Ὣ ᬫ ߽ ,

߬ ߴԬ ᬫ, ᬪ Ѭԫ ᬿ Ѯ

ӿҡ . Ѽ , , ߡ ߴԿ

߽ѡ. ỿ߿ ߽ټ ѽ -ѪѼ ߽ ,

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