Private sector and human-resource development in Georgia



Principle 22 - Initial and on-going prudential requirements. There should be initial and ongoing capital and other prudential requirements for market intermediaries that reflect the risks that the intermediaries undertake.






Monthly capital. adequacy report not audited. NSCG does not have power to reject an auditor.

Principle 23 - Internal organization and operational conduct and risk management. Market intermediaries should be required to comply with standards for internal organization and operational conduct that aim to protect the interests of clients, ensure proper management of risk, and under which management of the intermediary accepts primary responsibility for these matters.






No specific requirement of compliance officer / dept. with specific responsibilities.

Principle 24 - Procedures for failure. There should be procedures for dealing with the failure of a market intermediary in order to minimize damage and loss to investors and to contain systemic risk.






No procedures to manage winding down of a failed broker although other investor protection legislation, and regulations have been prepared.

Principle 25 - Authorization and oversight of exchanges. The establishment of trading systems including securities exchanges should be subject to regulatory authorization and oversight.







Principle 26 - On-going supervision of exchanges and trading systems. There should be ongoing regulatory supervision of exchanges and trading systems which should aim to ensure that the integrity of trading is maintained through fair and equitable rules that strike an appropriate balance between the demands of different market participants.






·   NSCG has no real time access to trading information, no real time oversight.

·   SML does not expressly require fair trading rules for different members.

Principle 27 - Trading transparency. The regulations should promote transparency of trading.






SML does not expressly require real time transparency of pre-trade information for direct market participants.

Principle 28 - Detection and deterrence of unfair trading practices. The regulations should be designed to detect and deter manipulation and other unfair trading practices.






No requirement of market surveillance / stock watch system to detect abnormal movements.

Principle 29 - Management of exposures, default risk and market disruption. The regulations should aim to ensure the proper management of large exposures, default risk and market disruption.







Principle30 - Oversight of clearance and settlement systems and management of systemic risks. Systems for clearing and settlement of securities transactions should be subject to regulatory oversight, and designed to ensure that they are fair, effective and efficient and that they reduce systemic risk.






·   The GCSD needs to comply with the requirement of ownership structure.

·  The legal requirement for efficiency in settlement arrangements could be stated more explicitly.

1.5.3        Employment Regulations in Georgia

Labor Code. The Labor Code of Georgia regulates labor relations between workers and employees living in Georgia and enterprise, institution and organization (regardless their ownership and organizational legal form), supports to realization of human rights and freedoms through labor fair reimbursement (legal payment), creation of safe and healthy working conditions for all employees and workers including the working conditions for minors and women. On the basis of international agreements regulating labor relationships, the state protects the labor rights of Georgian citizens abroad. Foreign citizens and stateless persons living in Georgia have the rights and obligations equal to the rights and obligations of citizens of Georgia with some exceptions envisaged by the Constitution and law.

Nondiscrimination. Under the constitution labor is free. Each person has right to choose its field of activity and profession. Discrimination in obtaining a job, or in the workplace, based on race, skin color, language, sex, religion, political and other beliefs, national, ethnic and social origin, property and title of nobility or place of residence is prohibited.

Minimum and Maximum Age of Employment. According to the legislation of Georgia minimum working age is 16 years. Maximum working age is not determined, but pension can be given to a man in the age of 65 years and a woman in the age of 60 years.

Working Hours.  According to the Labor Code of Georgia the duration of the working period is:

- 41 hours per week, with five working days;

- 36 hours per week in certain dangerous or unhealthy activities or jobs.

- The duration of a working day totals 8 hours and 15 minutes.

- Thus, the number of working days per month equals 21,1 days.

- Minimum leave is equal to a total of 24 working days.

Wages. Reimbursement of labor is carried out according to labor amount and quality. According to the legislation, minimum level of salary is determined in the amount of 20 GEL. The nominal average monthly salary of an employee in 2001 made up 91.4 GEL. Higher labor reimbursement is considered for employees working in certain dangerous or unhealthy climatic conditions. However, the wages for each professional category are usually negotiated in labor agreements.

Social Taxes. The article on Social Taxes of the Tax Code of Georgia stipulates a new system of social tax payment. According to the tax code of Georgia, social tax rates are as follows: The amount to be paid into the United State Fund of Social Security is equal to 28% of the salaries paid, out of which the employer has to contribute 27% and the employees have to contribute 1%, and the payment to the United State Fund of Employment is equal to 1% of the salaries paid, which  has to be contributed by the employers.

Medical Insurance Fee. Medical Insurance Fee for legal entities is equal to 3% of the salaries paid. Medical Insurance Fee for all employed persons is equal to 1% of their income (exemptions: compensation surplus for annual leave; bonuses; awards; pensions and allowances).


Social Security System. The social security system of Georgia is based on compulsory social insurance. According to the Presidential Decree dated by June 29, 2000 (No 278), issues relating to the assignment and distribution of state pensions and aids, definition of vulnerability and other medical-social expertise are the responsibility of the Ministry of Health and Social Security. The reform in social insurance system, which was recently carried out in Georgia, encourages the improvement of the social security system and the establishment of private pension funds.

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